Delivery Systems

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Advanced metering infrastructure

An advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is an integrated system of smart meters, communications networks, and data management systems that ena …

Alternating current (AC)

There are two types of electrical current: direct current, or DC, and alternating current, or AC. In an alternating current system, the electron …

Ampacity

Ampacity is commonly used in place of the formal term ampere capacity. Ampacity is the maximum amount of current, in amps, that a particular dev …

Ampere (Amp)

Amperes, commonly called amps, are used to measure electric current.

Ancillary services

Ancillary services are the services (other than energy) required by system operators to ensure reliable operation of the electric grid.

Apparent power

Apparent power is the total amount of power supplied to customers on an electrical system and is quantified in units of volt-amps or VA, kilovol …

Aquifer gas storage

An aquifer is an underground body of rock, sand, or gravel that holds groundwater. In some areas natural aquifers have been converted to natural …

Area control error (ACE)

Area control error (ACE) is defined as the instantaneous difference between a balancing authority’s net actual and scheduled interchange with …

Associated gas

Some oil wells also produce natural gas along with the oil. The produced gas is called associated-dissolved gas, or, more simply, associated gas …

Automated meter reading

Automated meter reading or AMR combines the electronic capabilities of newer solid-state meters with communication systems such as radio, phone, …

Automatic generation control (AGC)

In power systems, automatic generation control (AGC) is the control mechanism responsible for maintaining the system frequency to the desired va …

Backhaul

Backhaul is a contractual transaction where gas is moved on a pipeline in the opposite direction of flow.

Balancing (natural gas volumes)

Balancing is a technique used throughout the natural gas industry to allow parties to manage day-to-day fluctuations in gas deliveries and/or re …

Balancing authority

A balancing authority is the entity responsible for maintaining system frequency for an area comprising a collection of generation, transmission …

Balancing authority area

A balancing authority area comprises a collection of supply resources, transmission, and loads within metered boundaries.

Baseload demand

Baseload refers to the minimum constant level of electric demand created by a customer or a group of customers.

Baseload generation

Baseload generation, which is generation run all 24 hours of the day, is one of three categories of generation. The other two are intermediate g …

Battery system capability

A difficulty in understanding electric battery capabilities is that they can be measured in different ways.

Biomass

Biomass is renewable organic material that comes from plants and animals and contains stored chemical energy from the sun.

Black start

Black start units can start independently without electricity from the grid. System operators need to maintain a certain amount of black start t …