Business and Regulation

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Demand response (DR)

Demand response, or DR, is a form of demand side management (DSM) that reduces demand during specific times or shifts demand across time.

Demand-side competition

To ensure market liquidity in competitive markets, there must be many sellers and also many buyers. One without the other does not make for a fu …


The general concept behind depreciation is that most assets lose value over time. The loss of value comes through effects of wear and tear, acti …


A disallowance, also called a regulatory disallowance or cost disallowance, is an investor-owned utility expenditure that regulators do not allo …

Distribution resource plan (DRP)

A distribution resource plan (DRP) is developed by a distribution utility to optimize integration of DERs and identify how and where DERs can be …

Duck curve

The duck curve is the name given to the shape of the net load curve in a market with a significant penetration of solar energy.

Electric cooperative

An electric cooperative, commonly called a co-op, is form of utility ownership where the utility is a non-profit organization owned by its custo …

Electric generation capital costs

Capital costs are the upfront costs necessary to construct and put a generation unit into service. These include engineering, procurement, and c …

Electric generation levelized costs

The levelized cost of electric generation is a measure of the average net present value cost of generating a MWh of electricity for a generating …

Electric generation variable costs

The variable cost of electric generation is a measure of the incremental cost of generating a MWh of electricity from a power plant.

Electric industry history

The word electricity is derived from the Latin word electricus, which means to "produce from amber by friction." While man has long known that t …

Electric reliability indices

Electric reliability indices measure the reliability of a given electric grid.

Electric supply and demand

The general paradigm in electric markets has been supply will be built to meet forecasted demand, regardless of cost. And demand is based on dem …

Electric vehicle (EV)

An EV is a vehicle that uses one or more electric or traction motors for propulsion. The electric motor may be powered by batteries, an onboard …

Electric wholesale services

Several types of services are bought and sold in wholesale markets. These services include forward capacity, forward energy, and many others.

Electrical power

Electrical power is the rate of work that can be accomplished by electricity.


Electrification is the act of consumers adopting new electric end-use technologies.

End user

The term end user refers to a consumer of energy that uses the energy for its own needs.

Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency reduces overall energy intensity for a specific energy use without concern for the timing of the use.

Energy marketer

Marketers generally purchase electricity from generators and/or natural gas from producers, and then resell it to utilities, end users, or other …