Markets

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Gas-to-Liquids

Gas-to-liquids (GTL) is a technology that chemically converts natural gas to a liquid synthetic fuel that can be used in place of diesel and jet …

Heat rate

The heat rate of a power plant is a quantity that reflects the amount of fuel required to generate one unit of electrical energy.

Hedging

Hedging is a risk management strategy designed to offset potential losses. Hedging may be implemented through structuring of physical commitment …

Henry Hub

Henry Hub, located in Erath, Louisiana, interconnects multiple natural gas pipelines, meaning that gas can be transferred from one pipeline to a …

Home of the future

The home of the future will be full of flexible energy consuming/producing devices that can be controlled in response to price signals from elec …

Hub

Hubs are common places for market participants to trade gas or electricity. Hubs are used for physical transactions, as pricing points for calcu …

Hybrid retail competition electric market model

Under this market model customers have the option of buying electric supply from a competitive retailer or choosing to continue taking supply fr …

Independent power producer (IPP)

Independent power producers, commonly called IPPs, are independent owners of generation that are not part of the regulated utility. They own and …

Independent System Operator (ISO)

An ISO is an independent organization that handles electric grid operations, market facilitation for certain electric markets, and bulk electric …

Intermediate demand

Intermediate demand, also called intermediate load, refers to the amount of electric demand created by a customer or a group of customers during …

LNG units

LNG units can be complex because different units are used to measure natural gas in its gaseous and liquid forms. And since LNG is a global busi …

Load forecasting

Load forecasting is the process of creating a forecast of the amount of gas or electric load expected on a system during a specified period of t …

Load serving entity (LSE)

In many regions, the term load serving entity (LSE) is used to refer to any electric market participant that provides supply to end-use customer …

Locational marginal pricing (LMP)

Locational marginal pricing, commonly called LMP, is a means of pricing electricity in organized wholesale markets facilitated by Independent Sy …

Marginal heat rate

The marginal heat rate represents the assumed heat rate of the marginal unit at a specific market location given the market price of natural gas …

Mark-to-market (MTM)

The market-to-market (MTM) value of a portfolio of physical and financial assets is the current value of the portfolio if it were liquidated at …

Market-based rate

Market-based rates refers to prices charged by regulated entities such as generators, electric transmission lines, gas pipelines, gas storage fa …

Merchant generator

Merchant generators are electric generation entities that create revenues by participating in competitive electric markets.

Midstream

The natural gas delivery chain comprises three groups: upstream midstream, and downstream. The midstream sector consists of entities involved in …

Monopoly

A monopoly is a business situation in which a corporation — through market power or a government-granted franchise — is either the only comp …