Business and Regulation

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Transmission company

Transmission companies, or transcos, are independent owners of transmission facilities. They are commonly investor-owned, and like IOUs operate …

Transmission outage

Transmission outages can be caused by a variety of reasons: weather events, lightning, fires, vandalism, terrorism, failure of substation or cir …

Transmission owner (TO)

In markets where the system operations function has been moved to an Independent System Operator (ISO), the term transmission owner, or TO, is u …

Transmission rights

Transmission rights are used by generators and/or marketers to ensure delivery of power to a point of sale.

Transmission System Operator

A transmission system operator (TSO) is a stand-alone natural gas or electric transmission company that owns transmission facilities and provide …

Unbundled service

Unbundled service happens when the distribution company provides the delivery service but another entity such as a marketer or aggregator provid …

Utility distribution company (UDC)

A utility distribution company (UDC) is an electric utility that provides distribution services.

Utility regulation

Utility regulation exists to ensure that customers of utilities and other service providers using the utility system are protected from a lack o …

Value at Risk (VAR)

Value at Risk, commonly called VAR, is a tool used to measure financial risk. VAR can be described as an estimate for a portfolio’s potential …

Vertically integrated monopoly utility electric market model

Under the vertically integrated monopoly utility model, generation, transmission, distribution, retail sales, and system operations functions an …

Wholesale electric pricing

Generally speaking, market-based prices are determined by market perceptions of the supply/demand balance. Wholesale electricity prices are usua …

Wholesale/industrial competition electric market model

Under the wholesale/industrial competition model, the utility remains responsible for providing supply to residential and small commercial custo …

Working capital

Working capital is the amount of money a company needs to have on hand to pay its obligations in the short term.

Zero carbon

Zero carbon describes a process that has no greenhouse gas emissions.

Zero emission vehicle (ZEV)

A ZEV is a vehicle that emits close to zero pollutants. As of 2021, ZEV was defined by California as having 98% cleaner emissions than the curre …

Zero-emissions credit (ZEC)

A ZEC is a tradeable financial instrument that allows the owner of a zero-emissions electric generating plant to receive revenue associated with …

Zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) credit

A zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) credit is a tradeable financial instrument that provides zero-emissions vehicle manufacturers with a revenue stre …

Zero-emissions vehicle mandate program

A zero-emissions vehicle mandate program, commonly called a ZEV mandate program, is a government regulation that requires manufacturers of vehic …